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Aceite de las Valdesas

Uses, history, beauty

Uses, history, beauty

The best olive oil for salads is the extra virgin olive oil. It is the olive oil with most flavored and fruity of all of them.

But of course, there are many varieties of extra virgin olive oils, each of which have their own characteristics. So, we propose one or several varieties of extra virgin oil for each type of salad. 

For fresh salads, with many greens and vegetables, like the typical summer salad with lettuce, tomato, onion, cucumber, carrots, etc… we recommend an extra virgin olive oil like Picual or Manzanillo, whose fresh and herbaceous notes fit perfectly and enhances the flavors of these ingredients, improving any that may be lacking in taste, as sadly happens frequently. (There are no good tomatoes like in past time)

 Salad and olive oil


For salads with fruits like apples, avocado, raisins, oranges, dried fruits and similar, or pasta salads or with broccoli and cheeses, we recommend hojiblanca olive oil, whose features match very well with these ingredients. In tasting panels the hojiblanca extra virgin olive oil offer notes as apple, almond and dried fruits notes, and it is not usually as herbaceous and bitter as picual. 

For salads exclusively made of fruits, with pears, bananas, strawberries, fruits of the forest, kiwi, etc. we recommend arbequina extra virgin olive oil, whose sweets notes, without any bitterness, make it ideal. 

These are our recommendations based on our tastes and experiences. You can try them and make your own opinion 

Bon Appetit!

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Below we give you some clues to see if an olive oil is in a bad condition, apart from checking the preferential consumption date printed on the label:

1) The olive oil has a strange and unnatural color. Extra virgin olive oils have a range of colors that goes from an intense green to gold. Any color other than these may indicate that the olive oil is in a poor condition. 

For example, an olive oil packaged in a transparent glass bottle or PET that has been exposed to the sun or to an intense light in a shop for a long period of time can acquire a reddish tone similar to whiskey or cognac.

Another example, olive oils exposed to many frying cycles end up adopting a dark color, even with some foam.


2) Rancid smell and taste. Most of the olive oils in bad condition available to consumers will be rancid olive oils, that is, extra virgin olive oils that have been oxidized little by little, in the shops or in the kitchens, and consequently have ended rancid.

The rancidity process in an olive oil is something unavoidable, it will happens sooner or later, but it can be delayed with some good conservation practices


What is the rancid olive oil taste? 

The smell of a rancid olive oil reminds the smell of the varnish, the solvent, a freshly painted room, with a sweet smell. An olive oil is surely rancid if it has been open for more than three years and it stays during that time in a bottle.


Is it possible to remove the rancidity in an olive oil? 

It is not posible to recover an olive oil that is already rancid. It's rusty and it is irreversible. A mistake that can sometimes be committed is to try to mix it with another extra virgin olive oil that is in good condition to compensate the rancidity in the first one. That is not recommended because in the rancid olive oil there are already some components that may damage faster the fresh olive oil with which we have mixed it.


What is the preferential consumption date in an Extra Virgin Olive Oil? 

The preferential consumption date is fixed by the producer at the moment of packaging. He decides that according to the state of the olive oil and its analytical report, the conditions of conservation in the shop until its purchase by the final consumer.
For example, if the producer has a very stable extra virgin olive oil, like picual, packaged in an opaque glass bottle, you can trust that its properties and conditions of being extra virgin will be preserved for a longer period of time than those less stable extra virgin olive oils, like Arbequina, bottled in a transparent PET packaging. 

This way, the normal thing is to put dates of preferable consumption between 1 and 2 years.
It is important to emphasize that the preferential consumption date is not counted from the production of the olive oil but from its labelling and packaging date, so, It is posible to find extra virgin oils packaged on the same date but one could have been produced two years ago and other just produced, having both the same preferential consumption dates.

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Starting the day with a breakfast that includes toast well soaked in extra virgin olive oil, the only oil we recommend eating raw, is a good start to the day because:


  • It contains the calories you need to do you work in the morning.
  • It contains an adequate daily dose of polyphenols (3 tablespoons) as an antioxidant.
  • And above all, it is a gastronomic pleasure that you will remember all day.

But there are various aspects to reflect on with regard to this issue.


What is the best variety of olive oil for toast?

It's a matter of taste. We encourage you to try all the varieties and experiment with the combinations. The ones we propose here are just that, proposals and recommendations.


To eat toast only with olive oil

This is where the olive oil really comes into play, and there is a big difference between a good extra virgin olive oil and a less good one. Since the oil is the only ingredient, at most with a bit of crushed tomato, we suggest varieties with a strong flavor, such as picual, or with more complex or combined flavors such as hojiblanca and frantoio.

And people, please do it properly and don't add salt. If it is a good oil with lots of flavor, then it isn't necessary, (I remember 30 years ago when the salt shaker was always at hand, but those were other times and the quality of most olive oils was quite weak, to say the least).


To eat toast with tomato and ham

Our preferred option. We might not know much about cooking, but we found this to be the perfect pairing (forgive us, gastronomes).

For these cases, our preferred option is a picual or a hojiblanca.

These oils also go well with toast with a bit of cured cheese.


To eat toast with jam, maple syrup or fresh cheese

Here our preference points to an olive oil of the arbequina variety with a mild taste without bitter notes. Its characteristics are perfectly adapted to these ingredients, and it is a healthier option than butter.



The only conclusion and the only advice are to experiment and try different varieties and variants. You'll surely be surprised!


Other disquisitions

Toast with garlic and oil, or oil with garlic

I admit that I was hooked on toast with garlic oil for quite some time. The classic bottle with a couple of cloves of garlic added. For this, by the way very healthy, alternative, a really good extra virgin olive oil is not necessary because the garlic masks all the nuances that an extra virgin can have. However, personally, I loved toast with extra virgin olive oil and marinated garlic. I had to quit because my social life was suffering, despite the conscientious toothbrushing and mint gum chewing.

Sometimes I am tempted to relapse, but to eat it for dinner and hope that the intensity of the garlic will disappear during the night. But I haven't even dared proposing it to the family.

Another variant is the widespread "cold" garlic directly on the bread. This I am not experienced in. It is undoubtedly more traditional and informal, but less practical as the smell of garlic gets on your fingers.


Modus operandi

There are basically two versions, pour the oil on a plate and soak small pieces of bread in it, so the oil is absorbed in the bread, or place half a bun or a slice of toast on the plate, and spray the oil on the bread with a good oil bottle.

The first is easier to achieve and is recommended for "newbies" since the second, which is intended to soak the bread without spilling oil on the plate, is for more "professionals". In this second version, you need to cut up the bread to ensure that enough oil is added, especially if it is toasted.


Formalities at the table

The big dilemma arises before the question "is it allowed?" or "is it advisable to dip toast in coffee, tea, hot chocolate...?" What I've learned about table manners clearly says no ... but it's just so good! In the event that you choose to skip the rules, you have to be careful to let the oil drain from the toast before removing it from the plate so as not to stain table and outfit. Should this happen anyway, don't worry about the drops of oil that end up in the coffee, it is just a sign that you have dipped the bread well.

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In our case and with the data we have from the last 10 years, the amount of oil produced by an olive tree is around 5 to 10 liters.

So when you pass through a landscape of olive groves you quickly get an idea of how each olive tree produces on average one and a half of the typical 5-liter bottles that you see in the stores.


What does the amount of oil produced by an olive tree depend on?

An olive tree produces more or less oil based on the following parameters:

  • age and size of the tree crown
  • whether the olive tree is rain-fed or irrigated
  • the weather conditions during the year
  • the cyclical yield
  • agronomic care: fertilizers, treatments and pruning

Let's detail them a little.


Age and size of the crown of an olive tree (for example in traditional or intensive olive groves)

When an olive tree is planted, it does not begin to produce fruit immediately. Olive seedlings usually have a height of one meter when bought in the garden center, just enough so that they can be attached to a stake and a protector can be attached to prevent rabbits from gnawing the trunk.

Obviously, this plant does not produce olives. You have to wait until the tree is 4 or 5 years old for it to produce olives. The farmer harvests the olives, even if in these years it is uneconomical, since leaving them on the tree would slow down its growth.

In these years, the farmer aims for the trunk to reach a free height without branches of at least 1 meter, so that in the future it can be accessed with a vibrating clamp for harvesting and to create three main branches from which to develop the crown of the olive tree.

An olive tree in a traditional or intensive frame can reach its maximum level of production between 15 and 20 years, depending on the availability of water, the absence of diseases and severe frost, and the correct and sufficient administration of fertilizer.

Regarding the size of the crown, it is limitated by the available space, which depends on the planting pattern.

In traditional olive groves, with a density of less than 200 trees per hectare, the olive trees are more widely spaced, and are usually larger trees, and therefore the amount of oil that each olive tree can generate increases with respect to whether it is an intensive or super-intensive olive grove.

In these traditional olive groves, the limiting factor was not, or isn't, space, but rather the availability of water, especially in dry land.

In intensive olive groves, with densities between 300 and 400 trees per hectare, the development of the crowns is limited by the neighboring olive trees, so the amount of oil generated per tree is less than that of a traditional olive tree.

Another issue is the production of oil per hectare. In all cases, intensive olive groves usually produce more oil than traditional ones.


Irrigated or rain-fed olive trees

Although the olive grove has traditionally been a rain-fed crop, and the olive grove produces fruit in conditions without excessive drought, the irrigation of an olive grove produces an increase in the amount of oil that an olive tree generates.

In order to maximize the effect of irrigation on the harvest in the traditional way, it has been considered to let irrigation replace the lack of spring and autumn rain in dry years and extend the rainy season in those years when the rain otherwise falls sufficiently. That is, extend the spring to May and June.

Extending the rainy season in the fall would not have much effect because it is harvest season and could be counterproductive. This is because in October the veraison of the olive begins, the transition from green to purple color. When this process begins, the generation of oil inside the olive (lipogenesis) stops, so any supply of water to the olive tree results in an increase in water in the fruit. This aspect can make it difficult to extract the oil in the oil mill.


Weather conditions

In this case the conditions are varied. Apart from the contribution of water, either by irrigation or rain, the main conditions are the following:

  • The absence of severe frost in winter and especially late spring frost. The latter is the most harmful to production because the new stems, responsible for future harvests, have already been developed and a late frost easily damages them.
  • The temperature during flowering. The olive tree is in bloom in mid-May. Too high temperatures cause the flowers to wither, thus significantly reducing the number of future olives.


Cyclical yield

The cyclical yield is a very typical phenomenon in the cultivation of the olive grove. The Spanish term "vecería" refers to the break that an olive tree naturally takes after a large fruit production. That is, a large olive harvest one year is usually followed by a low production the next because the olive tree is exhausted.

As such, "vecería" can be translated into cyclical yield, where the harvest is good one year, and not the next.

We have always thought that the alternate bearing was due to traditional forms of agriculture, in which the harvest was delayed to achieve the highest fat yield, and that this delay meant that the olive tree could not recover in time. This coupled with a deficit of nutrients for the formation of the fruit, especially phosphorus.

However, we began to think that the cyclical yield, although attenuated with modern agricultural management, is inherent to the crop.


Agronomic care

In this section, we look at proper use of fertilizers and treatments.

However, it deserves a special remark about controversial and strange pruning.

Olive pruning is always an interesting topic to discuss among farmers because it is so subjective.

There are many types of pruning, crown pruning, maintenance pruning, rejuvenation pruning and basically any adjective you can think of.

Pruning is essential to optimize all the resources contributed to the olive grove in the production of olives.

The overall objective of pruning is the creation of an orderly, ventilated tree crown that receives sufficient sunlight for the correct development of the largest number of fruits.

The strategies and ways to achieve this goal are found in any teacher booklet, although criteria and visions are gradually reconciled.

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España es el mayor productor de aceite de oliva del mundo. Dedica una superficie de 2.5 millones de hectáreas para el cultivo del olivar (el equivalente a la isla de Sicilia). 

En España, la mayoría del aceite de oliva se produce en el sur. Por regiones, Andalucía produce el 80% de la producción española. El otro 20% se reparte a lo largo de España por diferentes regiones: Castilla La-Mancha, Extremadura, Cataluña y Aragón.


Porcentaje de Producción (%) por regiones en España de Aceite de oliva virgen y virgen extra. (Cosecha año 2019-20)

Porcentaje producción Aceite oliva virgen y virgen extra por regiones en España

Fuente: Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. Gobierno de España.


Cantidad de aceite de oliva virgen y virgen extra producido en España. Cosecha 2019-20

Regiones Toneladas (t) Porcentaje (%)
Andalucía 710.052 78.5
Castilla La Mancha 61.230 6.8
Extremadura 62.124 6.9
Cataluña 24.393 2.7
Aragón 8.628 1.0
Resto de España 38.462 5.4



¿De dónde procede el aceite de oliva en Andalucía?


El 15% de la superficie total de Andalucía está dedicada al cultivo del olivar. Las provincias de Jaén y Córdoba son las principales productoras. Por detrás le siguen Granada y Sevilla.


Porcentaje de Producción (%) por provincias en Andalucía de Aceite de oliva virgen y virgen extra. (Cosecha año 2019-20)

Porcentaje de Producción de aceite de oliva virgen y virgen extra por provincias en Andalucía

Fuente: Ministerio de Agricultura,Pesca y Alimentación. Gobierno de España. 


Cantidad de aceite de oliva virgen y virgen extra producido en Andalucía. Cosecha 2019-20

Provincias Toneladas (t) Porcentaje (%)
Jaén 293.111 41.3
Córdoba 136.603 19.2
Granada 114.378 16.1
Sevilla 89.617 12.7
Málaga 48.268 6.8
Almería 15.370 2.2
Cádiz 6.976 1.0
Huelva 5.279 0.7



Jaén, el Mar de olivos


Conocida también como “Capital mundial del aceite de oliva”. Destaca entre otras el cultivo de la variedad Picual. El clima seco de Jaén y los calurosos veranos, hacen  que tenga un clima perfecto para el cultivo del olivar y los encontramos por todas partes, tanto en valles como en montañas. Este Mar de olivos será propuesto como candidato a la Lista de Patrimonio mundial de la UNESCO como el mayor bosque del mundo creado por el hombre.

Mar de olivos

En el Mar de olivos


Mar de olivos

Paisaje del olivar en Andalucía
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Existen varias fuentes para conocer el precio del aceite de oliva. No obstante, el precio del aceite de oliva no es único. Existen precios en origen, precios al consumidor, y precios en función de la categoría del aceite de oliva (lampante, virgen o virgen extra)

En base a cada tipo de precios tenemos varias fuentes de precios:


Poolred. Es el sistema de información de precios del aceite de oliva en origen de la Fundación del Olivar. Da cuenta del precio al que se cierra las ventas a granel que realizan almazaras y cooperativasl a los envasadores. Los precios se indican en euros/kg, y no incluyen el IVA (el IVA del aceite de oliva actualmente es del 10%). Poolred ofrece datos de las tres categorías de aceites de oliva vírgenes: lampante, virgen y virgen extra.

Facilita el precio medio del aceite de oliva de cada categoría, la horquilla de precios y los volúmenes de cada precio.


Observatorio de precios de la consejería de agricultura de la Junta de Andalucía. Los productores de aceite de oliva de la comunidad andaluza facilitan datos de ventas, tanto a granel como en envasado a la consejería de agricultura.

En referencia a los precios a granel, se pueden consultar los precios medios semanales desglosados de las tres categorías de aceite de oliva virgen. No incluyen en IVA. También se detallan los precios medios por provincias.

Por otra parte, el observatorio también facilita los precios del aceite de oliva envasado en garrafas de 5 litros y de latas de 5 litros. Estos precios son P.V.P.  y por tanto incluyen ya el IVA.  Estos precios corresponden a ventas únicamente en Andalucía. No obstante, el observatorio también permite consultar en su web los datos referentes a toda España, que recaba el Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, que los actualiza cada seis meses.

En la web los datos de los precios del aceite de oliva envasados se indican en euros/kg, lo que puede provocar cierta confusión.

El observatorio también dispone de una app para el móviles y tablets.


Infaoliva. Infaoliva es la Federación Española de Industriales fabricantes de aceite de oliva. En su web dispone de su propio observatorio de precios en base a los datos de agentes y corredores comerciales colegiados. Facilita precios de los aceites de oliva lampante, virgen y virgen extra a granel, de venta en origen diariamente.

La web de infaoliva dispone en su apartado de documentos de informes de la evolución de los precios del aceite de oliva de los últimos años realizados por el Ministerio de Agricultura.


Olimerca. Es una revista sectorial de referencia en el sector de los aceites vegetales. En su web dispone de datos de precios de aceite de oliva en origen. La hemos incluido porque aporta precios de aceites de oliva refinados, y en las ocasiones en las que se realizan operaciones, precios a granel de aceites de oliva ecológicos y por variedades. No sabemos las fuentes que usan para determinar los precios.


MFAO. Hace unos años se podía consultar el precio del aceite de oliva en lo más parecido que había a una lonja respecto al aceite de oliva. Esto era el mercado de futuros del aceite de oliva de Jaén. Debido a un cambio normativo de la UE, el mercado de futuros dejó de operar en 2015.


Ismea. Todas las fuentes de precios de aceite de oliva indicados hasta ahora corresponden a operaciones realizadas en Andalucía o en toda España. Los italianos también disponen de una monitorización de precios para sus aceites y de precios internacionales.

Es curioso comparar los precios en origen de los aceites españoles y los aceites italianos. En todas las ocasiones en las que los hemos comparados, los aceites de oliva italianos se vende bastante más caros que los españoles. ¡Nos queda mucho trabajo por hacer!

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Un acebuche es un olivo silvestre. Su nombre científico es Olea Europaea var. sylvestris, es por tanto la misma especie del olivo, pero salvaje. De hecho, si se deja mucho tiempo un olivar sin cultivar, los olivos se van acebuchando y adoptan muchas de sus características.

El acebuche adopta formas de arbusto o matorral. En comparación con el olivo, sus tallos son más recios y robustos, y las hojas son más anchas y de un color más vivo e intenso.

El fruto del acebuche es la acebuchina, que es igual que una aceituna pero más pequeña. La cantidad de fruto que da el acebuche es bastante inferior a la que produce su primo el olivo. 

En algunos lugares se elaboran aceites de acebuchina caseros, ya que su recolección y elaboración serían poco rentables a nivel comercial. En foros de internet se pueden encontrar pequeños productores caseros.

El acebuche forma parte del paisaje y del bosque mediterráneo, asociado con encinas, algarrobos y alcornoques. Puede alcanzar alturas de hasta 10 metros pero es poco usual. Lo común es encontrarlo en forma de arbusto o matorral. Se suele distinguir por sus hojas verde intenso y oscuro. 

Los acebuches son plantas muy resistentes, recias y correosas. Algunos ejemplares pueden tener incluso espinas. Al igual que el olivo, son muy resistentes a la sequía y se adapta bien a suelos pobres. Como su primo el olivo, el frío y la excesiva humedad no son de su agrado.

Acebuche recién brotado

Pueden crecer en prácticamente cualquier parte de clima mediterráneo. 

La primera foto es de un acebuche recién brotado está tomada en el desmonte de un vial de una urbanización de la costa mediterránea andaluza.

La segunda es un acebuche joven situado justo al lado del recién brotado.

 Si os gusta salir al monte seguro que os cruzáis con más de un olivo silvestre. Sólo hay que abrir los ojos bien.


Una posible etimología proviene de Dioscórides, un médico y botánico griego al que se considera unos de los precursores de la farmacopea moderna.

Dioscórides habla del olivo silvestre al que llama "zebbuj", y que los bereberes llaman "azzemur", de ahí el castellano derivó en acebuche.





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There is not a single oil density, since there are many types of oils. 

In general the relative density of most oils, both mineral and vegetable, is between 0,840 and 0,960

A simple and general oil definition could be: oils are fatty substances that are in liquid state at room temperature.

Oils are usually classified by its origin. Mainly they are vegetable oils or mineral oils. Original animal fats are not usually liquid at room temperature and they are called butters or simply fats. 

Oils density is always lower than that of the water, so that all the oils float in it and remain on the surface.

The density of the oil changes with the temperature. As the temperature rises, the oil expands, and therefore its density decreases. It is therefore necessary to express the density of the oil in relation to the temperature.


Density of some vegetable oils:

The vegetable oils density indicated below is the relative density with water at a temperature of 20 º C, except that of palm and coconut oils, which are taken at 50 and 40 °c respectively.


Relative densities of some vegetable oils 

Type of oil

Relative density

 Sunflower oil 

0.918 - 0.923

 Soybean oil 

 0.919 - 0.925

 Peanut Oil 

 0.912 - 0.920

 Olive oil 

 0.913 - 0.916

 Palma Oil 

 0.891 - 0.899

 Coconut oil 

 0.908 - 0.921

Corn oil 

 0.917 - 0.925

 Rapeseed oil 

 0.910 - 0.920

 Linen oil 

 0.926 - 0.930

Cotton oil 

 0.918 - 0.926

 Safflower oil 

 0.922 - 0.927


Relative and absolute density in vegetable oils: 

The above information is water-related densities at 20 º C. If you want to know the absolute density in kg/m3, for example, we only need to know the density of the water at 20 º C, which is about 998,30 kg/m3. Simply by multiplying the relative density of the oil by the density of the water we get the absolute density of the oil in kg/m3.

For example; What is the absolute density of rapeseed oil in kg/m3 at 20 º C?We take from the table the medium relative density value of rapeseed oil, 0,915 and multiply it by 998,30 kg/m3, resulting in 913,44 kg/m3.


Density of mineral oils: 

Mineral oils are derived from petroleum distillation. There are many different types of mineral oils with multiple uses: refrigerants, dielectrics, lubricants, etc.

There are many companies that produce them and the variants that are generated with the amount of added additives are enormous. 


According to the general mineral oil density, it can be said that it is between 0,840 and 0,960, in relative densities.

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Below we provide our extra virgin olive oils liter prices to our customers in our bigger capacity packagings: 

5 litres PET price: 53.00 €, VAT Included. The price of the liter of olive oil is 10.60 €. 

2 liters PET price: 22.00 €, VAT included. The price of the liter of olive oil is 11.00 €. 

1 litre PET price: 11.50 €, VAT included. The price of the liter of olive oil is 11.50 €. 

2.5 liters can price: 29.00 €, VAT included. The price of the liter of olive oil is 11.60 €. 

Transport costs to your address are not included in above prices. In our purchasing process you can find out how much could be them. 

We remember you our first purchase promotion for new customers, 5% discount of the olive oil price.


Las Valdesas Olive Oils is an Extra virgin olive oil that:

-Is produced of our own harvest, only by using for its elaboration olives from our own olive trees. 

-Is produced in the mill located in the farm

-Is produced by first cold extraction

-Has a low level of acidity. (See analytics).

-Are 100% monovarietal olive oils: Arbequina, Picual, Hojiblanca, Manzanillo and Frantoio. 

-Are from the last Olive Oil season, not from previous ones. 

-Has won some prestigious awards (Ministry of Agriculture, Expoliva, Olive Japan, etc) 

-Is packaged upon order, in order to preserve all its properties until you receive it.

With all that, and along with our online customers opinions, we believe we offer a fantastic extra virgin olive oil at an unbeatable price.

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Unrefined olive oils are those which, once extracted, are not submited to any additional treatment to be consumed. According to this definition, unrefined olive oils are only virgin olive oils, olive oils extracted only by using mechanical procedures, and therefore are not at any time in contact with solvents or chemical products. They are the oily juice of the olive.

However, being purist, we could include in unrefining olive oils those raw pomace olive oils. But they are not posible to be consumed without having been refined previously.


Why is it possible to consume unrefined olive oil? 

There are very few vegetable oils that can be consumed without refining, because the olive oil, in most of the plant species, is inside the seed

For example, sunflower oil is found in its pipes, and these contain little amount of oil and water and cannot be squeezed like an orange or an olive. It happens with palm oil or rapeseed too.

Olive oils from olives in poor sanitary conditions are also refined, or those that have been damaged by defective production or conservation. 

Unrefined olive oils preserve all natural substances (carotenes, tocopherols, polyphenols) from the olives with healthy properties for our organism. (composition of unrefined olive oils).

In the refining process of low quality unrefined olive oils (lampantes olive oils), they are subjected to several processes to improve their characteristics of flavor, smell, color, acidity, etc. You can learn more about the refining process and refined olive oils here.


Las Valdesas unrefined olive oils:

In Las Valdesas we only produce unrefined the highest quality of the olive oils, that is, extra virgin olive oil. We also offer these olive oils not only unrefined, but also unfiltered, with minimal manipulation. (See difference between filtered and unfiltered olive oils).

Every year we analyze our olive oils to check their quality and to confirm that they do not have pesticide residues. All in order to guarantee the most natural and healthy olive oils: an authentic olive juice. (see analytics of our olive oils).


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Córdoba es la segunda provincia de España en producción de aceite de oliva tras Jaén.


Zonas de producción del aceite de oliva de Córdoba

Campiña Sur de Córdoba: en el triángulo que forman Lucena, Puente Genil y Aguilar de la frontera. En esta zona se encuentran las D.O. de Lucena y Estepa. La variedad de olivo que predomina en esta zona es la hojiblanca.

Zona de la Subbética: en la Sierra Sur de Córdoba y zona oriental de la provincia. Destacan los municipios de Baena y Priego de Córdoba, con sus respectivas D.O. Las variedades de la zona son la picual, la picudo y la hojiblanca.

Zona de Sierra Morena: destacan los términos municipales de Montoro, Adamuz y Hornachuelos. Las variedades típicas de la zona son la picual, picudo y nevadillo negro. Existe una denominación de origen en la zona: Montoro-Adamuz.


Variedades de aceituna en la provincia de Córdoba

Las variedades principales en la provincia de Córdoba son:

- Hojiblanca, en la Campiña Sur. 

- Picual, en toda la provincia, pero especialmente en la zona limítrofe con Jaén.

- Picudo, es una variedad de sierra, por lo que se encuentra en la Subbética y en Sierra Morena.

- Nevadillo negro, principalmente en Sierra Morena.

Por otra parte, y aunque no es una variedad autóctona de Córdoba, existen actualmente muchos olivares plantados de la variedad Arbequina.


Aceite de oliva Las Valdesas


Denominaciones de origen de aceite de oliva de la provincia de Córdoba

D.O. Baena

D.O. Priego de Córdoba

D.O. Lucena

D.O. Montoro-Adamuz

D.O. Estepa (la margen izquierda del río Genil perteneciente al municipio cordobés de Puente Genil está incluida en esta D.O.)

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AOVE es el acrónimo de Aceite de Oliva Virgen Extra. El aceite de oliva virgen extra de toda la vida en España.

Es una palabra que se está extendiendo mucho en los últimos años. Empecé a verla en la carta de algunos restaurantes de cierto nivel dando apellido a algunos platos: "Lubina al horno al AOVE arbequina". Recuerdo comer con mi cuñada y preguntarle al camarero el significado de "AOVE". Se quedó un poco chafada con la respuesta. 

Más tarde, otro conocido mío, me aseguraba que AOVE era una marca concreta de aceite de oliva virgen extra.   

Creo que el uso del término AOVE es un reflejo del término EVOO (Extra Virgin Olive Oil), muy usado en Estados Unidos por los productores y entendidos del aceite de oliva en California principalmente.

En el mundo anglosajón son muy dados a los acrónimos y en el aceite de oliva no han sido una excepción.

Con la gran capacida de influencia del inglés, en el exterior está muy extendido EVOO y se usa mucho: EVOO contest, EVOO rankings, etc.

En España, ya existen muchas empresas dedicadas a producir y comercializar aceites de oliva virgen extra que incluyen AOVE en su nombre.

Pues ya lo saben, cuando oigan o lean la palabra AOVE ya saben lo que es y qué significa.

Aceite de oliva vertiéndose en pan

¿Entonces una AOVE significa simplemente aceite de oliva?

Bueno, como AOVE significa "Aceite de Oliva Virgen Extra" un AOVE debe cumplir las condiciones exigidas para ser Virgen Extra. Las puedes encontrar aquí.


Lo mejor de AOVE. Tipos

Lo mejor de las siglas AOVE  es el gran ahorro de tiempo al escribir sobre los tipos de aceites de oliva virgen extra. Así puedes hablar de AOVE de la variedad arbequina, o sobre un AOVE de cosecha temprana, un AOVE sin filtrar o un AOVE de la Denominación de Origen de tal sitio.  Puedes saber más sobre los tipos de AOVE aquí.


El nuevo acrónimo de moda en el aceite de oliva virgen extra: AOVEE

El significado de AOVEE sería "Aceite de Oliva Virgen Extra Ecológico".
No sé si tendrá mucho recorrido, pero si lo tiene, supongo que será por escrito porque hablado es casi impronunciable.

En el mundo anglosajón sería OEVOO, "Organic Extra Virgin Olive Oil". Creo que también es impronunciable en ingés. (Al menos cuando yo lo intento con el mejor acento posible en inglés,  parece que se me va a desencajar la mandíbula. Pruébelo y puede que su especialista maxilofacial se alegre de verle por la consulta).


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The main producers of olive oil are Spain, Italy, Greece, Tunisia, Turkey, MoroccoPortugal and Syria.

All of them are countries belonging to the Mediterranean basin. The production of these countries accounts for about 80% of world production.

Among them, Spain stands out as producing on average in the last 5 years more than 40% of the production worldwide.

The second most producing country is Italy, whose average over the last 5 years is 10% of the production worldwide.



Development of olive oil production by countries.

We have attached a graph below with the development of the production of olive oil over the last 30 years.

It should be noted that the countries that were world leaders in the production of olive oil continue to be so today. The olive tree is an eminently traditional crop with a long production cycle.

However, three aspects can be highlighted in the graph:

  • Production of olive oil worldwide has more than doubled in 30 years.
  • Spain is by far the leading producer, followed by Italy and Greece.
  • The phenomenon of the alternation can be seen in the graph, that is, alternation of years with great production, followed by years with little production.


Olive oil production in the main olive oil producing countries (x 1000 ton)
  2019/20 2018/19 2017/18 2016/17 2015/16 2014/15 2013/14 2012/13 2011/12 2010/11 2009/10 2008/9 2007/8 2006/07 2005/06 2004/05 2003/04 2002/03 2001/02 2000/01 1999/00 1998/99 1997/98 1996/97 1995/96 1994/95 1993/94 1992/93 1991/92 1990/91
Spain 1230,0 1789,9 1262,2 1290,6 1403,3 842,2 1781,5 618,2 1615,0 1391,9 1401,5 1030,0 1236,1 1111,4 826,9 989,8 1412,0 861,1 1411,4 973,7 669,1 791,9 1077,0 947,3 337,6 538,8 550,9 623,1 593,0 639,4
Italy 340,0 173,6 428,9 182,3 474,6 222,0 463,7 415,5 399,2 440,0 430,0 540,0 510,0 490,0 636,5 879,0 685,0 634,0 656,7 509,0 735,0 403,5 620,0 370,0 620,0 448,0 520,0 435,0 674,5 163,3
Greece 300,0 185,0 346,0 195,0 320,0 300,0 132,0 357,9 294,6 301,0 320,0 305,0 327,2 370,0 424,0 435,0 308,0 414,0 358,3 430,0 420,0 473,0 375,0 390,0 400,0 350,0 254,0 310,0 385,0 170,0
Tunisia 300,0 140,0 325,0 100,0 140,0 340,0 70,0 220,0 182,0 120,0 150,0 160,0 170,0 160,0 220,0 130,0 280,0 72,0 35,0 130,0 210,0 215,0 93,0 270,0 60,0 100,0 235,0 120,0 250,0 175,0
Turkey 225,0 193,5 263,0 178,0 150,0 160,0 135,0 195,0 191,0 160,0 147,0 130,0 72,0 165,0 112,0 145,0 79,0 140,0 65,0 175,0 70,0 170,0 40,0 200,0 40,0 160,0 48,0 56,0 60,0 80,0
Morocco 145,0 200,0 140,0 110,0 130,0 120,0 130,0 100,0 120,0 130,0 140,0 85,0 85,0 75,0 75,0 50,0 100,0 45,0 60,0 35,0 40,0 65,0 70,0 110,0 35,0 45,0 40,0 38,0 50,0 36,0
Portugal 125,4 100,3 134,8 69,4 109,1 61,0 91,6 59,2 76,2 62,9 62,5 53,4 36,3 47,5 29,1 41,2 31,2 28,9 33,7 24,6 50,2 35,1 42,0 44,8 43,7 32,2 32,1 22,0 62,0 20,0
Syria 120,0 100,0 100,0 110,0 110,0 105,0 180,0 175,0 198,0 180,0 150,0 130,0 100,0 154,0 100,0 175,0 110,0 165,0 92,0 165,0 81,0 115,0 70,0 125,0 76,0 90,0 65,0 86,0 42,0 83,0


New producing countries

Due to the recognition of olive oil as one of the healthiest fats for our cardiovascular system, among other benefits, olive cultivation has interested many countries without an olive tradition.

Countries with potential for the cultivation of olive groves because they have areas with a Mediterranean climate have begun to produce olive oil. We can highlight Algeria, Argentina, Chile, United States (California), Australia, Egypt and China.

Little by little they are increasing their production, although today it is anecdotal with respect to the main producers.



Producción de aceite de oliva por países (x 1000 tn)
  2019/20 2018/19 2017/18 2016/17 2015/16 2014/15 2013/14 2012/13 2011/12 2010/11 2009/10 2008/9 2007/8 2006/07 2005/06 2004/05 2003/04 2002/03 2001/02 2000/01 1999/00 1998/99 1997/98 1996/97 1995/96 1994/95 1993/94 1992/93 1991/92 1990/91
Spain 1230,0 1789,9 1262,2 1290,6 1403,3 842,2 1781,5 618,2 1615,0 1391,9 1401,5 1030,0 1236,1 1111,4 826,9 989,8 1412,0 861,1 1411,4 973,7 669,1 791,9 1077,0 947,3 337,6 538,8 550,9 623,1 593,0 639,4
Italy 340,0 173,6 428,9 182,3 474,6 222,0 463,7 415,5 399,2 440,0 430,0 540,0 510,0 490,0 636,5 879,0 685,0 634,0 656,7 509,0 735,0 403,5 620,0 370,0 620,0 448,0 520,0 435,0 674,5 163,3
Greece 300,0 185,0 346,0 195,0 320,0 300,0 132,0 357,9 294,6 301,0 320,0 305,0 327,2 370,0 424,0 435,0 308,0 414,0 358,3 430,0 420,0 473,0 375,0 390,0 400,0 350,0 254,0 310,0 385,0 170,0
Tunisia 300,0 140,0 325,0 100,0 140,0 340,0 70,0 220,0 182,0 120,0 150,0 160,0 170,0 160,0 220,0 130,0 280,0 72,0 35,0 130,0 210,0 215,0 93,0 270,0 60,0 100,0 235,0 120,0 250,0 175,0
Turkey 225,0 193,5 263,0 178,0 150,0 160,0 135,0 195,0 191,0 160,0 147,0 130,0 72,0 165,0 112,0 145,0 79,0 140,0 65,0 175,0 70,0 170,0 40,0 200,0 40,0 160,0 48,0 56,0 60,0 80,0
Morocco 145,0 200,0 140,0 110,0 130,0 120,0 130,0 100,0 120,0 130,0 140,0 85,0 85,0 75,0 75,0 50,0 100,0 45,0 60,0 35,0 40,0 65,0 70,0 110,0 35,0 45,0 40,0 38,0 50,0 36,0
Portugal 125,4 100,3 134,8 69,4 109,1 61,0 91,6 59,2 76,2 62,9 62,5 53,4 36,3 47,5 29,1 41,2 31,2 28,9 33,7 24,6 50,2 35,1 42,0 44,8 43,7 32,2 32,1 22,0 62,0 20,0
Syria 120,0 100,0 100,0 110,0 110,0 105,0 180,0 175,0 198,0 180,0 150,0 130,0 100,0 154,0 100,0 175,0 110,0 165,0 92,0 165,0 81,0 115,0 70,0 125,0 76,0 90,0 65,0 86,0 42,0 83,0


82,5 97,0 82,5 63,0 82,0 69,5 44,0 66,0 39,5 67,0 26,5 61,5 24,0 21,5 32,0 33,5 69,5 15,0 25,5 26,5 33,5 54,5 15,0 50,5 51,5 16,5 21,0 27,0 37,0 6,0
Argentina 26,0 27,5 45,0 24,0 24,0 30,0 30,0 17,0 32,0 20,0 17,0 23,0 27,0 15,0 23,0 18,0 13,5 11,0 10,0 4,0 11,0 6,5 8,0 11,5 11,0 6,5 8,0 10,0 9,0 8,0
Egypt 27,5 7,0 39,5 30,0 16,5 17,0 20,0 16,5 9,0 4,0 3,0 5,0 7,5 10,5 2,5 2,5 2,0 5,0 1,5 0,5 2,5 0,5 1,0 0,5 2,5 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 0,5
Chile 20,0 19,0 22,0 20,0 17,5 18,5 15,0 15,0 21,5 16,0 12,0 8,5 6,5 5,0                                
Jordan 25,5 21,0 21,0 20,0 29,5 23,0 19,0 21,5 19,5 27,0 17,0 18,5 21,5 37,0 22,0 29,0 25,0 28,0 14,0 27,0 6,5 21,5 14,0 23,0 14,0 13,5 12,5 14,0 5,0 8,0
Australia 21,0 19,0 21,0 21,0 20,0 19,5 13,5 9,5 15,5 18,0 18,0 15,0 12,0 9,0 9,0 5,0 2,5 2,0 1,0 1,0 0,5 0,5                
Palestine 23,0 15,0 19,5 20,0 21,0 24,5 17,5 15,5 15,5 25,0 5,5 20,0 8,0 31,5 10,0 20,0 5,0 21,5 18,0 20,0 2,0 5,5 9,0 12,0 12,0 8,0 1,0 31,0    
Libya 16,5 16,0 18,0 16,0 18,0 15,5 18,0 15,0 15,0 15,0 15,0 15,0 13,0 11,0 9,0 12,5 12,5 6,5 7,0 4,0 7,0 8,0 6,0 10,0 4,0 6,5 8,0 6,0 10,0 7,0
Israel 19,0 16,0 17,0 18,0 18,0 18,5 15,0 18,0 13,0 12,5 3,5 9,0 4,0 8,5 3,0 9,0 3,0 9,0 3,5 7,0 2,5 4,5 3,0 5,5 5,0 5,5 1,5 7,5 2,5 8,0
Lebanon 19,0 24,0 17,0 25,0 23,0 21,0 16,5 14,0 14,0 32,0 9,0 12,0 10,5 6,0 5,5 6,0 7,5 6,0 5,0 6,0 5,0 7,0 3,5 6,5 5,0 5,0 2,0 8,0 5,0 6,0
United States 16,0 16,0 16,0 15,0 14,0 5,0 12,0 4,0 4,0 4,0 3,0 3,0 2,0 1,0 1,0 1,5 1,0 1,0 0,5 0,5 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 4,5 1,0 0,5 1,0
Albania 11,0 11,0 11,0 11,5 10,0 11,0 10,5 12,0 7,0 8,0 5,0 6,0 4,0                                  
Iran 9,0 7,0 7,0 3,5 5,0 4,5 5,0 3,5 7,0 4,0 4,0 4,5 4,5 4,0 4,5 4,0 2,5 1,5 2,5 3,0 2,5 2,5 3,0 1,5 3,0 1,5 3,0 2,0 0,5 0,5
France 5,9 5,5 6,2 3,3 5,4 1,7 4,8 5,1 3,2 6,1 5,7 7,0 4,7 3,3 4,4 4,7 4,6 4,7 3,6 3,2 4,1 3,4 2,7 2,5 2,3 2,0 2,3 1,6 4,3 1,0
China 6,0 5,5 6,0 5,0 5,0 2,5                                                
Croatia 3,5 3,4 3,9 5,0 5,5 1,1 4,6 4,0 4,0 5,0 5,0 6,0 4,5 4,0 5,0 5,0 3,0 7,0 5,0 5,5 9,0 5,0 1,5              
Saudi Arabia 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,0 2,5                                
Uruguay 2,0 0,5 1,0 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5                                              
Montenegro 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 1,0 1,0 0,5 0,5 1,5 2,5 2,0 1,5 2,0 3,5
Slovenia 0,3 0,9 0,4 0,4 0,5 0,2 0,6 0,2 0,5 0,7 0,7 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,5 0,0 0,2                          
Malta 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,1 0,0                                              
Cyprus 6,0 4,7 6,0 6,0 6,0 6,2 3,8 5,6 6,5 6,5 4,2 2,8 4,0 8,3 7,2 7,5 7,0 7,0 6,5 5,5 3,5 2,5 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,0 3,0 1,5 2,0
Mexico             0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 2,0 2,5 2,5 2,5 2,0 1,5 1,0 2,5 2,0 2,5 2,0 2,0 3,0 2,0 2,0 2,5
Other countries 217,0 193,5 199,0 205,0 199,5 182,5 252,5 236,5 272,0 251,0 216,0 189,5 153,5 201,5 128,0 198,0 130,0 185,5 110,5 183,0 96,5 134,0 87,0 145,5 91,0 107,0 86,5 101,0 62,5 150,5
World Production 3345,6 3395,3 3562,4 2751,0 3361,4 2626,0 3490,1 2623,2 3578,2 3311,1 3174,6 2843,7 2851,7 2953,3 2692,6 3204,2 3297,0 2673,7 2928,7 2741,0 2464,4 2528,9 2545,7 2732,1 1820,6 1945,5 1904,3 1906,7 2259,3 1571,2
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Olive oil has many uses in many fields and facets of our life. 
Some of them are the following ones: 

Olive oil serves in the kitchen as food: 

Olive oil is a vegetable fat used mainly as a food. It contributes 9 KCalories per gram. Our body use it mainly as a source of energy and to build the cell membranes of our organisms.

The most common uses in the kitchen are: 

- For dressing salads and meats. 

- As an ingredient for sauces, such as mayonnaise and aioli or vinaigrettes. 

- In Mediterranean countries it is used to fry food: meat, fish, potatoes, eggplant, croquettes. (Tips for frying with olive oil, advantages of frying with olive oil)

- Olive oil is used in high-level restaurants with bread as a starter of the meal replacing the butter. 

- Olive oil is consumed raw in breakfasts with toasted bread. In some parts, you add crushed tomatoes, garlic, salt or sugar. (How to choose the best olive oil for breakfast).

- Olive oil serves as a preservative. It does not proliferate bacteria and microorganisms that in other ways, such as water or milk. This is why it is used in the canning industry: there are canned sardines in olive oil, tuna in olive oil, octopus in olive oil, etc. In the same way, it has been also used in homemade way as preservatives: cheese in olive oil, loin in olive oil or lard, etc.

-Mild olive oils are being used more and more in bakery. The olive oil in sweets, cookies and biscuits is used to make them healthier than if they had been made with butter. (Use olive oil in bakery).


Olive oil is used to improve our health:

Olive oil has many health benefits, (and with each investigation are discovered more and more) 

- Olive oil serves, along with a balanced diet and a little daily exercise, to reduce the risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease.

- Olive oil is used to reduce the total cholesterol levels, and helps to reduce bad cholesterol (LDL) and to increase the good one levels (HDL). (How does olive oil help to reduce cholesterol?

-Extra virgin olive oil with high levels of polyphenols helps to prevent triglycerides from rusting in the blood torrent and causing lesions on the blood vessels.

- Olive oil serves to reduce the Omega 6/Omega 3 ratio. Currently this relationship is around 10. Experts suggest that it should be between 5 and 3. This ratio is so high today because the food industry uses in its prepared dishes many oils rich in omega 6 (sunflower oil). Since olive oil is mainly rich in Omega 9, replacing sunflower oil with olive oil helps to reduce this quotient.

- Olive oil also improves intestinal transit and serves against bad breath. 

- Olive oil is often used as a gastric protector. Some mothers give their children a few tablespoons before their young children go out on weekends and consume alcohol.

- Some  scientific investigations have recently been carried out in which the consumption of olive oil decreases the incidence of certain types of cancer. On the other hand, a molecule discovered in olive oil, oleocanthal has anti-inflammatory properties similar to ibuprofen, and some investigations have demonstrated antitumoural activity in vitro.

You can know all the benefits of olive oil in this link.


Olive oil for beauty, cosmetics and hygiene:

- Olive oil serves since historical times to make soaps. Currently there are many creams, gels and soaps whose base is olive oil.

- In the world of cosmetics olive oil has been used as a skin moisturizer. This is due, among other components, to the presence of squalene. This prevents the formation of wrinkles and keep our skin young and soft. 

- Olive oil is also used to hydrate and nourish our hair. It is usually applied from the root to the ends, by doing a soft massage and covering your head with a hot towel. Clears up after five minutes.

- Olive oil is used to apply to the skin after a burn. After washing the burning area with fresh water, olive oil is applied to it. The olive oil hydrates the area of the burned skin and reduces the risk of infection. 

- Olive oil is also good for removing thorns, stings and splinters that have been stuck in the skin. Apply a little olive oil in the area and with some tweezers are removed easily.


Olive oil in the Christianity: 

Olive oil has a great prominence in the Old and the New Testament: 

- Samuel the Prophet anointed Saul with olive oil to be King of Israel. In the same way it happened with the rest of the Kings. The word "Christ" means anointed, in reference to this ritual of symbolic blessing with olive oil.

-Olive oil serves as the basis of the Saints oils, used in the anointing Sacrament of sick, and the chrism, used in baptism and confirmation.


Other uses of olive oil:

- Olive oil is an excellent homemade lubricant. It prevents rattle hinges, can be used to grease chains and bicycle gears. 

- Olive oil also serves as a temporary protector of metal parts against oxidative processes.

- In some special situations, olive oil has been used as a motor vehicle fuel. This is quite unusual because olive oil is quite expensive to use in these needs. For example in Spain, after the Civil War, truck engines were modified so that they could use olive oil as fuel.

-In antiquity, olive oil was used as fuel. So olive oil was used to feed oil lamps (like Aladdin's). Obviously, the worst quality olive oil, called Lampante, was the used one. The word lampante is still being used nowadays to name the worst quality olive oil that is not suitable for human consumption.

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La flor del olivo tiene varios  nombres según el lugar. Los más usuales son  rapa, esquimo, cadillo o trama, aunque con este último nombre se designa en algunos lugares al brote verde con forma de botón que dará lugar a la flor.


Trama del olivo


Las flores del olivo son pequeñas, y se agrupan en racimos compuestos de entre diez a cincuenta flores, dependiendo de la variedad del olivo. Tiene un color blanquecino y el centro amarillo y está compuesta por cuatro pétalos con un cáliz de pequeño tamaño, corola uniforme, dos estambres y limbo formado a su vez por cuatro lóbulos.


Flor de olivo recién salida


Las flores del olivo tienen un olor ligero poco intenso, y puesto que las flores son pequeñas y blancas la floración del olivo pasa visualmente desapercibida para las personas ajenas al mundo del olivar. Llama más la atención la acumulación del polen en zonas de grandes de masas de olivares como en Andalucía.


¿Cuándo es la floración del olivo?

 Aunque existe una leve variabilidad en cuanto al momento de la floración, ésta suele producirse en las semanas centrales de mayo.

 Es un periodo crítico para el futuro de la cosecha, pues si la floración es escasa, de la misma manera, la cosecha puede ser escasa.

En ocasiones, en mayo suben mucho las temperaturas, y las flores se pueden agostar sin llegar a germinar y producir fruto.

De hecho los aforos de cosecha más relevantes suelen llevarse a cabo tras la floración en la que se estima el cuajado de la aceituna, es decir, cuantas flores femeninas han sido fecundadas y se han transformado en pequeñas aceitunas.


aceitunas cuajadas con flores ya marchitas

Polinización de las flores de olivo

En general, a partir de mayo se produce la floración de los olivos. En ese momento el polen viaja por la atmósfera para fecundar la flor femenina formándose un embrión envuelto por el fruto comenzando así su crecimiento.

Algunas de las flores del olivo son hermafroditas, es decir, tienen los dos sexos (tienen estambre y pistilo), pudiendo dar lugar a un nuevo fruto, otras sin embargo sólo producen polen, son flores masculinas que no dan fruto.

Otro fenómeno muy curioso en el proceso germinativo es que muy excepcionalmente el polen de un olivo suele fecundar las flores de la misma variedad, por lo que la naturaleza necesita cruzar variedades para garantizar el mantenimiento y la fortaleza de la especie.

Como dato de interés, sólo un 2% del total de la floración manifestada en el campo completa el ciclo íntegro germinando y convirtiéndose en aceituna. El olivo posteriormente se desprende de aquellas a las que no puede mantener durante el resto de su ciclo anual.

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La poda del olivo es una labor agrícola necesaria para mantener la estabilidad del árbol entre sus funciones vegetativas y reproductivas, de tal modo que, a través de ella se busque la mayor producción, reducir el periodo improductivo y alargar el productivo sin desvitalizar el olivo.

¿Cuándo se podan los olivos?

Generalmente la poda se lleva a cabo tras el periodo de recolección de la aceituna. Los meses exactos para la poda dependerán del destino que se le vaya a dar a la aceituna. Así, si la aceituna recolectada es de verdeo para aceituna de mesa, la poda se realizará entre los meses de Noviembre y Diciembre. Si la aceituna va destinada a la almazara o producción de aceite, se realizará entre los meses de Febrero y Abril. No obstante lo expuesto, en aquellas zonas donde se produzcan fuertes heladas, la poda debe retrasarse y no realizarse durante los meses de invierno.

También se desaconseja realizar esta labor cuando la savia del olivo está en movimiento y se separa la corteza de la madera, ya que los daños que se producen y las heridas no cicatrizan hasta los bordes. Aquellos años que esta espera no sea posible, por grandes cosechas que alargan el periodo de recolección, se deben utilizar aperos de poda que no separen la corteza de la madera, como sierras (ya sean mecánicas o manuales), evitando el uso de tijeras o hachas.

¿Cuál es la periodicidad de la poda?

Aunque no existe una regla fundamental en lo que a la periodicidad de la poda se refiere, lo más adecuado para plantaciones adulto-joven, parece ser la realización de las podas cada dos años. En todo caso, habría que planificar siempre teniendo en cuenta el estado del árbol. Así, tras una recolección voluminosa, no es aconsejable podar pues ese año habría un escaso número de yemas de flor.

Enfocando nuestra exposición a aquella aceituna destinada a la almazara, la periodicidad de la poda bianual es más conveniente que la anual, aunque también se producen excepciones. Si el olivar está ubicado en terrenos muy productivos con un nivel idóneo de lluvias, puede ser aconsejable aumentar este ciclo de poda de dos a tres o incluso cuatro años. Eso si, en ningún caso es aconsejable extender más de cuatro años el ciclo de poda, pues está demostrado que afecta a la producción y a la salud del olivo.

¿Qué conseguimos con una poda adecuada?

La vida de un olivo se puede resumir en tres etapas. La primera es la etapa de crecimiento y ausencia de producción, la segunda es la de mantenimiento de crecimiento y gran producción y la última es la de la vejez con una evidente reducción en la producción y paralización del crecimiento. Entre todos los tipos de poda, vamos a profundizar sobre la segunda, aquella realizada en olivares adulto-joven, que son los que se encuentran en el mejor momento productivo. Es la llamada poda de producción. Durante este periodo de vida del olivar se aconseja realizar podas con la menor intensidad posible, sobre todo en aquellas de regadío o en las de secano con buenos índices de pluviosidad.

Este tipo de poda busca abrir el olivo a la recepción de la mayor cantidad de radiación solar posible tendente a mejorar tanto la cantidad de producción como la calidad de la aceituna, proporcionando al olivarero los máximos rendimientos y el mayor beneficio económico posible. Una correcta poda de producción alarga el periodo de producción del olivar, debe evitarse la poda voluminosa que descargue en exceso el volumen de la copa del olivo pues desequilibra la relación hoja/madera exponiendo las ramas directamente a la acción solar.

En el olivar es fundamental alcanzar el volumen de copa óptimo productivo por hectárea. Las mejores producciones en calidad y cantidad se obtienen cuando el olivo ha alcanzado dicho volumen. Toda labor tendente en la poda a partir de ese momento debe ir dirigida al mantenimiento de este volumen óptimo, equilibrando el crecimiento del olivo y su fructificación. Si el olivo aún no ha alcanzado este óptimo, la producción no será la idónea ni en cantidad ni en calidad. Si por el contrario, se supera el volumen de copa óptimo, se provocará un déficit hídrico en la época estival, que producirá una reducción de la cantidad de producción, una peor calidad de la aceituna y un rendimiento graso inferior.

¿Cómo realizar la poda?

Una poda correcta debe ir encaminada al corte de aclareo más que al rebaje. Deben suprimirse los chupones grandes (ramas que salen de las principales) ya que tienen poca producción y absorben savia del matriz. Ahora bien, no es conveniente suprimir todos los chupones; deben preservarse aquellos más finos (chupan menos savia) situados en el interior del olivo para que den sombra al esqueleto principal del olivo y eviten que se seque con la radiación solar.

Otra parte del olivo que se debe clarear son las ramas bajas, a las que llega poca iluminación y dan aceitunas de peor calidad, siendo además poco productivas en la recolección cuando se utiliza la vibración.

Una poda considerada eficaz y eficiente es aquella que se realiza buscando un máximo aprovechamiento de la luz. Técnicamente se logra dando forma abierta e irregular a la copa, con muchos entrantes y salientes siendo mayor la superficie para la formación de fruto. Se debe evitar la forma del olivo con copas compactas y redondeadas o esféricas, así como aquella con elevada altitud y poca anchura. Asimismo debemos equilibrar las ramas salientes del esqueleto principal del olivo observando que el interior la copa del olivo quede bien iluminada evitando aclareos excesivos de ramificaciones finas ya que con ello se disminuye la proporción hoja/madera y con ello la futura producción del olivo.

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